Saturday, September 20, 2008

ISLAMOFOBIA

Islam berasal dari istilah salam yang secara linguistik dapat didefinisikan sebagai sejahtera dan aman daripada definisi secara literal itu secara konsepnya islam merupakan satu agama wassata’ dan kepercayaan kepada wassata’ sebagai tuhan yang satu,berlandaskan al- quran dan as-sunnah jadi apa-apa yang baik selagi tidak menyalahi prinsip al-quran dan as-sunnah adalah islam.Islam itu terbahagi kepada dua iaitu islam secara fizikal dan islam secara rohani.Islam secara fizikal merupakan keislaman seorang individu pada luaran semata-mata.Contohnya menutup aurat solat dan puasa.Islam secar rohani merupakan keislaman seseorang individu pada dalaman seperti kepercayaan dan pegangan.Secara holistik islam yang sebenar seharusnya merangkumi kedua-dua aspek untuk membentuk individu yang benar-benar islam.Daripada perngetian islam ia merupakan simbolik bahawa islam merupakan agama yang mengajar kepada keamanan sejagat.Konsep keamanan sejagat bererti membawa keamanan keseluruh dunia.

Dalam isu islamofobia,Ia merujuk kepada situasi dimana tanggapan masyarakat bukan islam yang fobia atau ketakutan yang amat sangat terhadap masyarakat islam dan agama islam itu sendiri.Perasaan takut ini wujud apabila orang bukan islam beranggapan agama islam boleh mengancam hak serta kebebasan yang mereka miliki sejak sekian lama.Perkara ini jelas diperlihatkan di Negara-negara barat lebih-lebih lagi apabila ada propaganda dari sesetengah pihak yang ingin menjatuhkan atau memburukkan imej islam.Kesannya amat dirasai oleh setiap orang yang menganut agama Islam terutama sekali apabila peristiwa 11 september 2001.Peristiwa ini telah menyebabkan pandangan serong orang bukan islam terhadap islam apabila amerika mengumumkan dalang perbuatan ini adalah kumpulan terroris Islam.

Tony Blair enggan sentuh isu serang Iraq


NEW HAVEN, Amerika Syarikat (AS) 20 Sept. – Bekas Perdana Menteri Britain, Tony Blair semalam menggambarkan dirinya sebagai seorang pelajar yang bermasalah.

Blair yang menganuti fahaman Katolik berkata demikian ketika menyampaikan syarahan agama di hadapan lebih 2,000 penuntut Universiti Yale.

Pada mulanya, Blair yang juga Fellow Kehormat Howland di universiti terkemuka itu menggambarkan dirinya sebagai seorang pelajar yang sangat bijak semasa masih menuntut.

Bagaimanapun, bekas Perdana Menteri yang bersara pada tahun lalu itu, kemudiannya sambil berjenaka mengimbau kenangan silam dengan menyatakan bahawa bekas gurunya pernah menganggap beliau “mengalami sakit punggung” kerana tabiatnya yang suka ponteng kuliah dan melepak.

Dalam syarahan selama satu setengah jam itu, Blair bagaimanapun tidak menyentuh tentang peranan penuh kontroversinya menyokong tindakan Presiden George W. Bush menawan Iraq, yang sehingga kini gagal membuktikan bahawa bekas Presiden Iraq, Saddam Hussein memiliki senjata pemusnah besar-besaran.

Menurut Blair, konflik di Iraq tidak begitu popular di Britain.

Malam Lailatulqadar


Soalan: Bagaimana untuk kita mengetahui mengenai tanda-tanda kehadiran malam Lailatulqadar?


JAWAPAN: Kata sesetengah ulama, malam Lailatulqadar berlaku pada satu malam tertentu seperti malam 21 dan 23 Ramadan. Ini menurut Imam Syafie r.a dan sesetengah ulama kerana ada hadis Bukhari dan Muslim yang menceritakan Lailatulqadar berlaku pada malam tersebut sehingga Rasulullah saw sujud dan dahinya yang mulia masih berlumuran tanah pada malam itu. Ada sesetengah ulama, tidak menentukannya secara pasti dan ada juga ulama terutama dari kalangan para zuhad dan sebagainya mengira dengan hari permulaan puasa. Menurut mereka, sekiranya permulaan puasa jatuh pada hari Ahad atau Rabu maka Lailatulqadar ialah pada hari yang ke-29. Jika bermula puasa pada hari Jumaat atau Selasa, ia jatuh pada hari ke-27 dan jika permulaan puasa pada Khamis, Lailatulqadar berlaku pada 25 Ramadan. Sekiranya awal puasa pada Sabtu maka Lailatulqadar jatuh pada hari ke-23 dan jika awal puasa pada Isnin, seperti tahun ini, maka Lailatulqadar jatuh pada malam yang ke-21. Demikianlah kaedah yang diguna pakai oleh sebahagian ulama termasuk Imam Abul Hasan r.a. Tegas beliau: Aku tidak pernah terlepas malam Lailatulqadar tersebut dengan menggunakan kaedah ini''. Tanda dan alamatnya adalah banyak, antara lain malam itu sendiri berlalu dengan penuh keheningan dan tenteram, angin bertiup lembut sepoi-sepoi bahasa dan esoknya, pada pagi hari kelihatan langit agak redup dan cahaya matahari tidak begitu menyinari ruang angkasa dan macam-macam lagi. Hikmatnya ialah apabila seseorang mengetahui malam Lailatulqadar tersebut, maka eloklah diperbanyakkan doa dan istighfar juga ibadat pada malam dan keesokannya, untuk mendapatkan fadilat hari yang penuh berkat dan mulia itu. Yakinlah apabila seseorang itu bersedia setiap malam Ramadan dengan ibadat, sekurang-kurangnya bersolat jemaah setiap waktu, Maghrib, Isyak dan Subuh, kata ulama dia pasti memperoleh fadilat malam Lailatulqadar Oleh itu bersolatlah dengan tekun dan berterusan terutama pada bulan Ramadan al-Mubarak ini. Wallahualam.

Thursday, September 18, 2008

video
this person i really salute him in handling his bike...who ever call them self a rider try to ride like him if you all can..=p

model of this superbike is YZF R1

Wednesday, September 17, 2008

video
today our lab group being join with the other group...quite crowded in the lab but double the team double the fun....ahaks

we all having so much fun in the lab because in this class we were able to know each other much better..anyway just enjoy watching this video k..go future geologist!!!~~spade_akem

Sunday, September 14, 2008

lelaki vs perempuan(edisi pertama)

battousai shishio: aku nyer awek dah kene rampas
battousai shishio: hahaha
farah amirah: ye ker
battousai shishio: rasa mcm sedih skit
farah amirah: sape rmpas
farah amirah: haha
farah amirah: tue la balasan
farah amirah: rmpas awek org dulu
farah amirah: hehehe
farah amirah: alaa..
farah amirah: jgn sdey ahh
farah amirah: poyo je
farah amirah: bkn ko x serius ke
battousai shishio: haha
battousai shishio: x sedih sgt la
battousai shishio: aku mmg x kisah
battousai shishio: namun
battousai shishio: mcm x best la
farah amirah: tp sdey gak
battousai shishio: lorh
battousai shishio: x sedey la
farah amirah: sbb dh x de sape ek
battousai shishio: malas nak cari len la
battousai shishio: eh
battousai shishio: tinggal akma je la
battousai shishio: nak kene topup la mcm ni'
farah amirah: apo2 la akem
farah amirah: asal kan ko bahagie
battousai shishio: hahaha
battousai shishio: kat sini
farah amirah: aku dh bahagie
farah amirah: hidup aku cmnie
farah amirah:
farah amirah:
battousai shishio: akan aku cuba dapatkan
battousai shishio: ???
battousai shishio: mcm mana 2 macm ni>
farah amirah: hehehe
farah amirah: ye la cmnie
farah amirah: aku dh mls pkir dh
battousai shishio: owh
battousai shishio: bagus la
farah amirah: aku pkir aku single je
battousai shishio: erm
battousai shishio: lagi pun
farah amirah: sng
battousai shishio: aku ngan ex aku 2
battousai shishio: x sehaluan la
battousai shishio: dia mcm nak aku tumpu sgt pada hubungan
farah amirah: owhhh
battousai shishio: aku lak nak duit
farah amirah: ape la
farah amirah: pompuan
farah amirah: biase la
battousai shishio: ish
battousai shishio: mana leh
farah amirah: ko blum pam
battousai shishio: duit dulu
farah amirah: kitorng lg
battousai shishio: hubungan 2 lepak2 la
farah amirah: nnti bile ko dh matang
farah amirah: ko pam la
battousai shishio: aku dah matang la
battousai shishio: sbb 2 aku pk duit dulu
farah amirah: skrg... ko main jauh2 dulu ye
battousai shishio: siot
battousai shishio: sapa pk hubungan dulu la x matang
farah amirah: kitorg bkn x kesah psl duit
farah amirah: kesah sgt
battousai shishio: dah 2
battousai shishio: ingat nak kahwin free ke?
farah amirah: tp sbb kitorg yakin ko leh cr duit
battousai shishio: aiya
battousai shishio: yakin je x cukup
farah amirah: abis ko igt kalo kawen
farah amirah: pom x kuar duit ke
battousai shishio: keyakinan korang 2 la menambahkan kerisauan lagi
farah amirah: kuar gak
farah amirah: kitorg lagi la nk yg grand
battousai shishio: aku kalo kahwin aku akan pastikan bini aku x kuar sesen pun
farah amirah: ye la tue
battousai shishio: yer
farah amirah: x kn nyer
farah amirah: kalo aku
battousai shishio: aku akan
farah amirah: majlis aku
farah amirah: aku nk wat grand2
farah amirah: byk nye duit
farah amirah: aku la urus
farah amirah: die cume bg antaran je
battousai shishio: huh
battousai shishio: wat apa
battousai shishio: bazir duit je
battousai shishio: bek simpan
farah amirah: duit boleh di cari
battousai shishio: biar laki la kuar
battousai shishio: itu kiteorg nyer bidang
farah amirah: ye la
farah amirah: ko kaye
farah amirah: ahahaha
farah amirah: tp ntah ar
farah amirah: aku kalo majis aku
farah amirah: aku la kummpul duit
farah amirah: laki
farah amirah: ssh la kalo sume kuar duit
battousai shishio: katakan la aku kaya time ko kahwin
farah amirah: kene la kerjasame
battousai shishio: minx la apa2
battousai shishio: aku bayarkan downpayment rumah korang nak x?
farah amirah: kalo aku.. anaran sepoloh ribu
battousai shishio: wah
battousai shishio: 10 je?
battousai shishio: cukup ke?
farah amirah: paling kurang la
farah amirah: tue antaran la
farah amirah: blum masuk blanje kenduri
battousai shishio: wah2
farah amirah: barang2
battousai shishio: demang2
battousai shishio: demand2
farah amirah: kad hantaran n so whatever
battousai shishio: tau2
battousai shishio: ada dlm 30K
farah amirah: haaaa
farah amirah: tau pon
farah amirah: sbb tue la
battousai shishio: ish
farah amirah: kerjasame
battousai shishio: takut aku nak kahwin
farah amirah: pam x..
battousai shishio: kene cari duit byk
farah amirah: kalo aku nk grand
battousai shishio: jgn wisau
battousai shishio: aku akan cari duit byk2
farah amirah: pom pon kene kuar duit
battousai shishio: sampai hantaran aku nnt ferarri
battousai shishio: hahaha
farah amirah: kalo ko nk kawen umo 35
battousai shishio: kukuh x?
farah amirah: mmg leh ar
battousai shishio: 35
farah amirah: ko bg sume
battousai shishio: keje dah 10 thn
farah amirah: mase tue ko dh tue.. duit dh byk
battousai shishio: kalo seathun aku save 10K
battousai shishio: 10x10
battousai shishio: 100K
battousai shishio: erm
battousai shishio: x cukup nakbeli ferarri
farah amirah: 30 k
farah amirah: pn blum tentu cukup
battousai shishio: btol2
farah amirah: mase tyme kote nnt
battousai shishio: kote??
battousai shishio: lucah ko ni
farah amirah: kite
farah amirah: silap2
battousai shishio: hahaha
farah amirah: otak muuu
battousai shishio: ahahaha
battousai shishio: lawak2
battousai shishio: sumpah lawak
battousai shishio: cuba ko baca balik
farah amirah: o dgn i kan sebelah2
battousai shishio: yeal2
farah amirah: x mau
farah amirah: seee
farah amirah: ko pon wat typing error
battousai shishio: heheh
battousai shishio: x pe
farah amirah: jgn igt pom x kesah psl cr duiit
battousai shishio: bukan aku ckp x kisah
battousai shishio: just
farah amirah: kitorg kisah
battousai shishio: paham la laki nak cari duit
farah amirah: tp kitorg leh bg komitmen
farah amirah: due2 sekali
battousai shishio: hubungan come next la
battousai shishio: ok
battousai shishio: katakan mcm ni
battousai shishio: aku ske ko
battousai shishio: ko ske aku
battousai shishio: dah
battousai shishio: selesai
battousai shishio: x perlu la nak msj ari2
battousai shishio: call
battousai shishio: kuar
battousai shishio: apa2 ke
battousai shishio: lagi 5 6 thn
battousai shishio: kite kahwin la
battousai shishio: kan senang mcm 2
farah amirah: ahahah
farah amirah: x de la ari2
battousai shishio: dah kahwin baru tumpu pada hubungan
battousai shishio: apa aku mean
farah amirah: kawen je x knl cmner
battousai shishio: lepas kahwin la baru nak tumpu
battousai shishio: hahaha
battousai shishio: mcm atuk n nenek aku kenal lak masa kahwin
battousai shishio: elok je bahagia
battousai shishio: lagi best lagi
farah amirah: dulu2
battousai shishio: x ada beza pon
farah amirah: leh ar
farah amirah: dorg x depilihan
battousai shishio: sapa kata
farah amirah: kalo skrg
farah amirah: de pilihan
battousai shishio: pilihan utk apa??
farah amirah: mesti la nk yg terbaik
battousai shishio: dekati zina??
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
battousai shishio: apa chop
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
farah amirah: chop2
battousai shishio: mmg la rasa mcm x
farah amirah: chop2
battousai shishio: pada zahir nya
battousai shishio: pada batin nya?
farah amirah: weyhhh
farah amirah: aku nk tye
farah amirah: atuk n nenek ko dulu
farah amirah: pilihan sapo
farah amirah: pilihan mak bpk kan
battousai shishio: x
farah amirah: mmg la bahagie
farah amirah: hubungan direstue
battousai shishio: atuk aku je ske nenek aku
battousai shishio: kenal kenal2 mcm 2
farah amirah: kenal gak
battousai shishio: kenal
battousai shishio: bukan nyer bercinta
farah amirah: atok ko hendap gak nenek ko ari2
farah amirah: heheheheh
battousai shishio: banyak la
farah amirah: heheheh
battousai shishio: x sampai sebulan pown
battousai shishio: dah kahwin
battousai shishio: pakcik aku
battousai shishio: relax je
battousai shishio: kenal form 1
battousai shishio: ske sama ske
battousai shishio: x ada pun date..
battousai shishio: x ada cple
battousai shishio: tau2 balik dari us kahwin
farah amirah: ye la
farah amirah: contohi la mereka ye
battousai shishio: sbb cara diaorang btol
farah amirah: dorg trus jumpe jodoh
battousai shishio: bukan
farah amirah: senang la dorg
battousai shishio: hek eleh
battousai shishio: diaroan usaha gak
battousai shishio: pak cik aku tekel gak
battousai shishio: namun x ada la melampau2
battousai shishio: mcm x leh idup kalo x ada makcik aku 2
farah amirah: melampau
farah amirah: mane ko tau
farah amirah: x melampau
battousai shishio: aku kenal la pakcik aku
farah amirah: ye la
farah amirah: pak cik ko
farah amirah: bkn pak cik aku
battousai shishio: anak dia pon mcm 2 kot
farah amirah: hohoho..
farah amirah: ikot ko la ye
battousai shishio: ske sorang gurl
battousai shishio: bgth dia ske gurl 2
battousai shishio: pastu dah
battousai shishio: wat bodo je
farah amirah: ok
farah amirah: dh kawen lom
battousai shishio: mmg la blom
battousai shishio: tapi dia nak kahwin
battousai shishio: bukan nya dia x pentingkan hubungan
battousai shishio: kalox pentingkan
battousai shishio: x ada niat ak kahwin
farah amirah: ye la akem..
farah amirah: sape x pentngkan..
battousai shishio: mcm ni la
battousai shishio: aku amik analogi
battousai shishio: ko rancang nak bina masjid
battousai shishio: rancang bagai nak rak
battousai shishio: lukis plan sume
battousai shishio: hari2 rancang
battousai shishio: konon nak pastikan jadi la masjid 2
battousai shishio: namun
battousai shishio: x ada modal nak bina
farah amirah: sape sorh rncang bagai nk rak
battousai shishio: jadi x masjid 2??
battousai shishio: jadi ke x?
battousai shishio: mustahil jadi
battousai shishio: beza dengan
battousai shishio: sekali rancang
battousai shishio: pastu terus kumpul modal
farah amirah: kalo harap sorg je cari modal
farah amirah: mmg x jd
battousai shishio: lebih baik sorang cari modal dari dua2 sibuk merancang
battousai shishio: lepas 2
battousai shishio: kalo laki 2 rangcang sekali je
battousai shishio: mula la cakap
battousai shishio: x ske la
battousai shishio: x ada komitmen la
battousai shishio: x padang dia lagi la
battousai shishio: x syng la
battousai shishio: curang la
battousai shishio: sume kuar
battousai shishio: wal hal skit pun x nah pk apa yg dia cuba wat
farah amirah: ahahah
farah amirah: ape la..
farah amirah: ssh la nk pam kan kaum adam nie
farah amirah: hehehe
battousai shishio: adoi
farah amirah: alaa.. tp mmg ko curang pon
battousai shishio: lorh
farah amirah: ahahah
farah amirah: betol la tue ck die
battousai shishio: curang kiteorh slah satu strategi gak
farah amirah: betol la tue ckp die
battousai shishio: ko prefer mana
battousai shishio: curang sblm kahwin or selepas?/
farah amirah: ye la akem
farah amirah: strateggi
battousai shishio: huh
farah amirah: kalo x yh curang x leh ke
battousai shishio: x tau ke laki ske berfoya
farah amirah: nk curang
farah amirah: tue pilihan ko..
battousai shishio: kene gak
battousai shishio: sbb laki aku cakap jujur
battousai shishio: mmg x setia
farah amirah: hmmm
farah amirah: ikot ske la ye kaum adam oiii
battousai shishio: sbb 2 dia nak puaskan dia x setia duluu
battousai shishio: mcm aku
battousai shishio: masa skola rendah dah puas mencuri
farah amirah: sbb tue .. aku dh mmg x caye ngn kaum adam ...
battousai shishio: skang x curi dah?
battousai shishio: aku dulu x penah solat
battousai shishio: skang bukan nak riak cuma mmg aku x ske tinggal solat
battousai shishio: manusia akan belajar dari apa dia wat
farah amirah: adoii..
battousai shishio: x leh phm ke bnd mc 2
battousai shishio: mudah je
farah amirah: mmg la blaja
battousai shishio: kalo dulu dia dah curang
farah amirah: sape x blaja
battousai shishio: dah
battousai shishio: dia x kan curnag lagi
battousai shishio: itu je
farah amirah: masalah ko mmg sengaje nk wat kesalahan
battousai shishio: laaa
battousai shishio: nama pun manusia
farah amirah: sengaja
battousai shishio: hati kite bukan dibasuh air zamzam
farah amirah: sengaja
farah amirah: kalo mmg x pe la.. mmg insaf pas tue
farah amirah: kalo terwat x pe la.. mmg insaf pas tue
battousai shishio: then kenapa ngan sengaja?
battousai shishio: apa masalah nyer
farah amirah: haaa..
battousai shishio: bagus la sengaja
battousai shishio: mean dia ada niat wat bnd 2
farah amirah: kalo dh tau... bende tue salah
farah amirah: kalo wat gak..
battousai shishio: bukan dlm keadaan mabok atau apa
farah amirah: nk insaf cmner
battousai shishio: aiya
battousai shishio: curang 2
farah amirah: sape lak kate nk mabok
battousai shishio: salah ke??
farah amirah: hmmmm..
battousai shishio: salah ke curang sblm kahwin>>?
battousai shishio: aku soal ko ni je
battousai shishio: salah ke??
farah amirah: senang cte
farah amirah: la
battousai shishio: salah ke curang sblm kahwin??
battousai shishio: salah ke kiteorg sengaja curang sblm kahwin??
battousai shishio: jadi btol la kalo curang selepas kahwin??
farah amirah: menganiaya
farah amirah: salah la
battousai shishio: apa ikatan secara halal antara kiteorg dgn korang??
battousai shishio: yg nak kata slah 2
farah amirah: tue lagi la menaniaya
farah amirah: curag lg..
battousai shishio: hahaha
battousai shishio: lawak2
battousai shishio: aniaya apa
farah amirah: kalo cmtue
battousai shishio: org yg rasa teranaya 2 sbb rancang byk sgt
battousai shishio: harapan je ada
battousai shishio: usaha?
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battousai shishio: hahaha
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farah amirah: kalo bg harapan pon
battousai shishio: cple 2 permainan la
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farah amirah: kalo mak bpk dh tau
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battousai shishio: ada restu>?
farah amirah: mesti ar kitorg berusaha
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battousai shishio: then
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farah amirah: kan aku ckp.. kau pom nie leh urus byk bende sekali gus
battousai shishio: ko cakap macam esok ank kawen
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battousai shishio: hahaha
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battousai shishio: kalo dah kahwin mau bunuh diri
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battousai shishio: itu assumption je
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farah amirah: jelas nyata lg terang ko x pam bde tue
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farah amirah: ahahaha.. seronok ar .. berdebat ngn ko
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farah amirah:
battousai shishio: sampai sini je la
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farah amirah: sengal betol..
farah amirah: hahahah
battousai shishio: selamat tinggal kekasih ku
farah amirah: bley2..
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battousai shishio:
farah amirah: x yh2
farah amirah: kite bkn kekasih
farah amirah: kalo kekasih
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farah amirah: betol la kate ko
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farah amirah: semahal mane
farah amirah: kitorg kaum pom
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battousai shishio: hehehe
battousai shishio: yups
farah amirah: salah ke
battousai shishio: aku akan bina masjid yg selesa utk beribadah
farah amirah: x salah gak kan
farah amirah: so ko biarkan je kalo kitorg nk jd korg
farah amirah: layan kan aje
battousai shishio: erm
farah amirah: xde nyer niat kitorg nk nyusahkan ko
farah amirah: xde nyer niat kitorg nk nyusahkan korg
farah amirah: so ko biarkan je kalo kitorg nk jage korg
farah amirah: layan kan je
farah amirah: lg pon korg mmg ske pon kalo de org jage kan
farah amirah: kalo x jage kang... komplen..x pernh kesah kn..
battousai shishio: ...
battousai shishio: layan 2 leh
battousai shishio: tapi berpada2
farah amirah: haa.. part tue kene bincang la...
battousai shishio: just biar kiteorg rasa istimewa skit je dr yg len
battousai shishio: x minx byk own
battousai shishio: kalo yg len kawan
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farah amirah: kitorg x kasi byk pon
farah amirah: kalo dh kawen nnt.. lg byk kitorg kasi
battousai shishio: haha
battousai shishio: itu x sabar
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farah amirah: tau pon..
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farah amirah: kdg2 kitorg x sedar pon.. terlebih..
battousai shishio: erm
battousai shishio: kalo kiteorg x manjekan sgt 2
battousai shishio: jgn amik ati
battousai shishio: sbnrnye dalam hati ni tuhan je tau mcm mana sayang kat gurl 2
battousai shishio: cuma ego jer x nak tunjuk
farah amirah: pam2..
farah amirah: hahah.. apsal la kite bincang nie akem
farah amirah: cm kite leh bgtau dunie je
farah amirah: haih..

compression ratio..

The compression ratio is a single number that can be used to predict the performance of any engine, particularly piston engines (but can be used on essentially any internal-combustion engine or external combustion engine as well).

In a piston engine it is the ratio between the volume of the cylinder and combustion chamber when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, and the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at the top of its stroke.

Picture a cylinder with the piston at the bottom of its stroke containing 1000 cc of air. When the piston has moved up to the top of its stroke inside the cylinder, and the remaining volume inside the head or combustion chamber has been reduced to 100 cc, then the compression ratio would be proportionally described as 1000:100, or with fractional reduction, a 10:1 compression ratio.

A high compression ratio is desirable because it allows an engine to extract more mechanical energy from a given mass of air-fuel mixture due to its higher thermal efficiency. High ratios place the available oxygen and fuel molecules into a reduced space along with the adiabatic heat of compression - causing better mixing and evaporation of the fuel droplets. Thus they allow increased power at the moment of ignition and the extraction of more useful work from that power by expanding the hot gas to a greater degree.

Higher compression ratios will however make gasoline engines subject to engine knocking, also known as detonation and this can reduce an engine's efficiency or even physically damage it.

Diesel engines on the other hand operate on the principle of compression ignition, so that a fuel which resists autoignition will cause late ignition which will also lead to engine knock.

[edit] Formula

The ratio is calculated by the following formula:

\mbox{CR} = \frac { \tfrac{\pi}{4} b^2 s + V_c } {V_c}, where
b = cylinder bore (diameter)
s = piston stroke length
Vc = volume of the combustion chamber (including head gasket). This is the minimum volume of the space into which the fuel and air is compressed, prior to ignition. Because of the complex shape of this space, it usually is measured directly rather than calculated.
  • Due to pinging (detonation), the CR in a gasoline/petrol powered engine will usually not be much higher than 10:1, although some production automotive engines built for high-performance from 1955-1972 had compression ratios as high as 12.5:1, which could run safely on the high-octane leaded gasoline then available. A technique used by Audi to prevent the onset of knock is the high "swirl" engine that forces the intake charge to adopt a very fast circular rotation in the cylinder during compression that provides quicker and more complete combustion. Recently, with the addition of variable valve timing and knock sensors to delay ignition timing, one worldwide manufacturer is building 10.8:1 CR gasoline engines that use 87 MON (octane rating) fuel.
  • Motorcycle racing engines can use compression ratios as high as 14:1, and it is not uncommon to find motorcycles with compression ratios above 12.0:1 designed for 86 or 87 octane fuel.
  • In engines running exclusively on LPG or CNG, the CR may be higher, due to the higher octane rating of these fuels.
  • Racing engines burning methanol and ethanol often exceed a CR of 15:1. (Consumers may note that "gasohol," or 90% gasoline with 10% ethanol gives a higher octane rating--knock suppression--rating.)
  • In engines with a 'ping' or 'knock' sensor and an electronic control unit, the CR can be as high as 13:1 (2005 BMW K1200S)
  • In a turbocharged or supercharged gasoline engine, the CR is customarily built at 9:1 or lower.
  • In an auto-ignition diesel engine, (no electrical sparking plug--the hot air of compression lights the injected fuel) the CR will customarily exceed 14:1. Ratios over 22:1 are common
  • In 1981, Jaguar released a cylinder head that allowed up to 14:1 compression; but settled for 12.5:1 in production cars. The cylinder head design was known as the "may fireball" head.

[edit] Fault finding and diagnosis

Measuring the compression pressure of an engine, with a pressure gauge connected to the spark plug opening, gives an indication of the engine's state and quality.

If the nominal compression ratio of an engine is given, the pre-ignition cylinder pressure can be estimated using the following relationship:

p = p_0 \times C_r^\gamma

where p0 is the cylinder pressure at bottom dead center (BDC) which is usually at 1 atm, Cr is the compression ratio, and γ is the ratio of specific heats of the working fluid, which is about 1.4 for air, and 1.3 for methane-air mixture.

For example, if an engine running on gasoline has a compression ratio is 10:1, the cylinder pressure at top dead center (TDC) is

 p_{TDC} = (1 bar) \times 10^{1.4} = 25.1 bar

This figure, however, will also depend on cam (i.e. valve) timing. Generally, cylinder pressure for common automotive designs should at least equal 10 bar, or, roughly estimated in pounds per square inch (psi) as between 15 and 20 times the compression ratio, or in this case between 150 psi and 200 psi, depending on cam timing. Purpose-built racing engines, stationary engines etc. will return figures outside this range.

Factors including late intake valve closure (relatively speaking for camshaft profiles outside of typical production car range, but not necessarily into the realm of competition engines) can produce a misleadingly low figure from this test. Excessive connecting rod clearance, combined with extremely high oil pump output (rare but not impossible) can sling enough oil to coat the cylinder walls with enough oil to facilitate reasonable piston ring seal artificially give a misleadingly high figure, on engines with compromised ring seal.

This can actually be used to some slight advantage. If a compression test does give a low figure, and it has been determined it is not due to intake valve closure/camshaft characteristics, then one can differentiate between the cause being valve/seat seal issues and ring seal by squirting engine oil into the spark plug orifice, in a quantity sufficient to disperse across the piston crown and the circumference of the top ring land, and thereby effect the mentioned seal. If a second compression test is performed shortly thereafter, and the new reading is much higher, it would be the ring seal that is problematic, whereas if the compression test pressure observed remains low, it is a valve sealing (or more rarely head gasket, or breakthrough piston or rarer still cylinder wall damage) issue.

If there is a significant (> 10%) difference between cylinders, that may be an indication that valves or cylinder head gaskets are leaking, piston rings are worn or that the block is cracked.

If a problem is suspected then a more comprehensive test using a leak-down tester can locate the leak.

[edit] Saab Variable Compression engine

Because cylinder bore diameter, piston stroke length and combustion chamber volume are almost always constant, the compression ratio for a given engine is almost always constant, until engine wear takes its toll.

One exception is the experimental Saab Variable Compression engine (SVC). This engine, designed by Saab Automobile, uses a technique that dynamically alters the volume of the combustion chamber (Vc), which, via the above equation, changes the compression ratio (CR).

To alter Vc, the SVC 'lowers' the cylinder head closer to the crankshaft. It does this by replacing the typical one-part engine block with a two-part unit, with the crankshaft in the lower block and the cylinders in the upper portion. The two blocks are hinged together at one side (imagine a book, lying flat on a table, with the front cover held an inch or so above the title page). By pivoting the upper block around the hinge point, the Vc (imagine the air between the front cover of the book and the title page) can be modified. In practice, the SVC adjusts the upper block through a small range of motion, using a hydraulic actuator.

The SVC project was shelved by General Motors when it took over Saab Automobile.

[edit] Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engines

The SAAB SVC is an advanced and workable addition to the world of VCR engines, the first being built and tested by Harry Ricardo in the 1920s. This work led to him devising the octane rating system that is still in use today. SAAB has recently been involved in working with the 'Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies', to produce a modern petrol VCR engine that showed an efficiency comparable with that of a Diesel. Many companies have been carrying out their own research in to VCR Engines, including Nissan, Volvo, PSA/Peugeot-Citroën and Renault but so far with no publicly demonstrated results.

The Atkinson cycle engine was one of the first attempts at variable compression. Since the compression ratio is the ratio between dynamic and static volumes of the combustion chamber the Atkinson cycle's method of increasing the length of the powerstroke compared to the intake stroke ultimately altered the compression ratio at different stages of the cycle.

[edit] Dynamic Compression Ratio

The calculated compression ratio, as given above, presumes that the cylinder is sealed at the bottom of the stroke (bottom dead centre - BDC), and that the volume compressed is the actual volume.

However: intake valve closure (sealing the cylinder) always takes place after BDC, which causes some of the intake charge to be compressed backwards out of the cylinder by the rising piston at very low speeds; only the percentage of the stroke after intake valve closure is compressed. This "corrected" compression ratio is commonly called the "dynamic compression ratio".

This ratio is higher with more conservative (i.e., earlier, soon after BDC) intake cam timing, and lower with more radical (i.e., later, long after BDC) intake cam timing, but always lower than the static or "nominal" compression ratio.

The actual position of the piston can be determined by trigonometry, using the stroke length and the connecting rod length (measured between centers). The absolute cylinder pressure is the result of an exponent of the dynamic compression ratio. This exponent is a polytropic value for the ratio of variable heats for air and similar gases at the temperatures present. This compensates for the temperature rise caused by compression, as well as heat lost to the cylinder. Under ideal (adiabatic) conditions, the exponent would be 1.4, but a lower value, generally between 1.2 and 1.3 is used, since the amount of heat lost will vary among engines based on design, size and materials used, but provides useful results for purposes of comparison. For example, if the static compression ratio is 10:1, and the dynamic compression ratio is 7.5:1, a useful value for cylinder pressure would be (7.5)^1.3 × atmospheric pressure, or 13.7 bar. (× 14.7 psi at sea level = 201.8 psi. The pressure shown on a gauge would be the absolute pressure less atmospheric pressure, or 187.1 psi.)

The two corrections for dynamic compression ratio affect cylinder pressure in opposite directions, but not in equal strength. An engine with high static compression ratio and late intake valve closure will have a DCR similar to an engine with lower compression but earlier intake valve closure.

[edit] Compression ratio versus overall pressure ratio

Compression ratio and overall pressure ratio are interrelated as follows:

CR 1:1 3:1 5:1 10:1 15:1 20:1 25:1 35:1
PR 1:1 2:1 10:1 22:1 40:1 56:1 75:1 110:1

The reason for this difference is that compression ratio is defined via the volume reduction,

CR=\frac{V_1}{V_2},

Pressure ratio is defined as the pressure increase

PR=\frac{P_2}{P_1}.

From the combined gas law we get:

\frac{P_1V_1}{T_1} = \frac{P_2V_2}{T_2} \Rightarrow \frac{V_1}{V_2}=\frac{T_1}{T_2} \frac{P_2}{P_1} \Leftrightarrow CR=\frac{T_1}{T_2} PR

Since T2 is much higher than T1 (compressing gases puts work into them, i.e. heats them up), CR is much lower than PR.